Wednesday, October 31, 2012

Good tuna for Sushi Day

This is the best tuna in October.


 
Look at this Toro part. Yummy!!

Taka Update October 31, 2012


 Taka Update October 31, 2012
Fish delivery and more
It’s been bad for a while. But new tuna is coming today. I am expecting this tuna. Sushi Day is tomorrow and need good tuna for Sushi lovers.I also get fresh Katsuo, Bonito. We sold well last night. Uni also comes today.
I changed some fish deliveries. Tachi Uo and Aka Mutsu are Tuesday delivery.  

SUSHI DAY is coming tomorrow.!
Our traditional event is coming on November 1st, National SUSHI DAY. It is tomorrow. I have a lot of Japanese fish for you.
 
Weight Control and Golf
It was very cold and windy Sunday but I played golf and was bad decision. My score was terrible. I did not remember well.  Weight control is not bad, not good. It is 172lbs this morning.


Musicians' Brains Might Have an Edge on Aging
Study found seniors with musical training outperformed others on thinking, memory tests.

It's been said that music hath charms to soothe the savage breast, but if you're the one playing it might benefit your brain.
A growing body of evidence suggests that learning to play an instrument and continuing to practice and play it may offer mental benefits throughout life. Hearing has also been shown to be positively affected by making music.
The latest study, published in the July issue of Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, shows that musical instrument training may reduce the effects of mental decline associated with aging. The research found that older adults who learned music in childhood and continued to play an instrument for at least 10 years outperformed others in tests of memory and cognitive ability.
It also revealed that sustaining musical activity during advanced age may enhance thinking ability, neutralizing any negative impact of age and even lack of education. It's unclear, however, whether starting an instrument in adulthood provides any mental advantages.
"Behaviors can change your brain," said study author Brenda Hanna-Pladdy, an assistant professor of neurology, radiology and imaging sciences at Emory University, in Atlanta.
The study confirms and refines findings from previous research published April 2011 in the journal Neuropsychology.
In childhood, when the brain is still developing, it seems that learning a musical instrument and continuing to play it for at least a decade or more may lay the groundwork for benefits later in life, Hanna-Pladdy said. But it's also valuable to then pick up the instrument in middle age and start playing again, she noted.
In this study, 70 musicians and non-musicians aged 59 to 80 were evaluated by neuropsychological tests and surveyed about general lifestyle activities. The musicians scored higher on tests of mental acuity, visual-spatial judgment, verbal memory and recall, and motor dexterity.
Hanna-Pladdy, a flutist, became interested in studying the impact of music education on the brain through her study of people with skilled movement disorders, such as those who had suffered a stroke. She realized that music could be a natural way to offer multi-sensory stimulation, an effective way to treat such disorders. She then became interested in learning more about the actual effect of musical training on the brain.
Why study music education as opposed to calculus or history? One reason is that evaluating the impact of music education is relatively easy because most people can specifically quantify the number of years they studied an instrument, Hanna-Pladdy said. It's also simpler to quantify the time spent playing music than hours devoted to other activities, such as crossword puzzles, reading or playing games. "Musical activity requires years of practice and is a challenging cognitive exercise," she said.
Cheryl Grady, a senior scientist at the Rotman Research Institute at Baycrest Centre, in Toronto, said the research confirms what has been known for some time: Education can help protect against cognitive decline in older adults.
Grady pointed out that it remains unclear what is actually causing the beneficial effect. "We still don't know that much about what actually happens in the brain. My hunch is that in terms of these results, it has to do with the practicing, the continued stimulation of the brain," she said.
She has studied the impact of learning a second language on the brain, which Grady said is related to the need to inhibit one language system when speaking, reading or thinking in the other. The mental process required to play a musical instrument may work in the same way as juggling dual languages to strengthen the connections in your brain over time, she noted.
The bottom line boils down to something simple: "Use it or lose it, or lose it less quickly," Grady said.
While the study found an association between musical activity and staying mentally sharp, it did not prove a cause-and-effect relationship.
More information Visit the U.S. National Library of Medicine for more on cognitive impairment.

 Secret of long life?
Be happy mentally and physically. Be crazy sometimes. Laughing is also good. Move your fingers well. This motion stimulates your brain. Inventing stock money is also good. You see many numbers from Monday to Friday. Watch CNBC and memorize all numbers show up. This is good brain training. How much is Gold price, Silver price, Copper price, Oil price an more.

 

Taka sushiandpassion www.sushiandpassion.blogspot.com

375 Pharr Rd. Atlanta GA 30305 Reservation 404-869-2802

 

Tuesday, October 30, 2012

Coming back Bonito! Modori Gatsuo

I had this bonito 2 years ago. Modori-gatsuo. Normally Bonito, Katsuo season is summer. They are coming from south to north.
Then, they are coming back from north to south in winter. So, we say Modori-Gatsuo, coming back bonito.
We can say return bonito but return is not good word, maybe.
It is well fat and tasty. You can eat this fish on Sushi Day, November 1st.
You can see the size. I compare with Kinme-Dai.
 
 
The meat is just like tuna but the texture and taste are different.


SUSHI DAY is coming on November 1st. Thusrday. You can get 30% of your dining coupon.

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

Taka Update Octobert 24, 2012


 Taka Update October 24, 2012
Fish delivery and more
Nothing is good. Tuna is hard to get it. I talked with our supplier and he told me tuna was very short supply. There were no good big eye tuna. And I will not get good tuna this weekend. Uni is not available until Friday. Japanese fish are no problem. They are coming tomorrow.

SUSHI DAY is coming very soon!
Our traditional event is coming on November 1st, National SUSHI DAY.
Please come to eat and get 30% discount coupons. You can use it your next visit.
I know American people like Sale. Some people already made reservations.


Weight Control and Golf
I am in very good shape around 170 lbs. Golf game was not great last week. I shot 47-45-92. I blamed by myself.  I had so many judgment mistakes.

Children's healthy diets lead to healthier IQ
Children fed healthy diets in early age may have a slightly higher IQ, while those on heavier junk food diets may have a slightly reduced IQ, according to new research from the University of Adelaide.
The study - led by University of Adelaide Public Health researcher Dr Lisa Smithers - looked at the link between the eating habits of children at six months, 15 months and two years, and their IQ at eight years of age.
The study of more than 7000 children compared a range of dietary patterns, including traditional and contemporary home-prepared food, ready-prepared baby foods, breastfeeding, and 'discretionary' or junk foods.
"Diet supplies the nutrients needed for the development of brain tissues in the first two years of life, and the aim of this study was to look at what impact diet would have on children's IQs," Dr Smithers says.
"We found that children who were breastfed at six months and had a healthy diet regularly including foods such as legumes, cheese, fruit and vegetables at 15 and 24 months, had an IQ up to two points higher by age eight.
"Those children who had a diet regularly involving biscuits, chocolate, sweets, soft drinks and chips in the first two years of life had IQs up to two points lower by age eight.
"We also found some negative impact on IQ from ready-prepared baby foods given at six months, but some positive associations when given at 24 months," Dr Smithers says.
Dr Smithers says this study reinforces the need to provide children with healthy foods at a crucial, formative time in their lives.
"While the differences in IQ are not huge, this study provides some of the strongest evidence to date that dietary patterns from six to 24 months have a small but significant effect on IQ at eight years of age," Dr Smithers says.
"It is important that we consider the longer-term impact of the foods we feed our children," she says.

Taka sushiandpassion www.sushiandpassion.blogspot.com

375 Pharr Rd. Atlanta GA 30305 Reservation 404-869-2802

Not much fun if I dont get good tuna. Tuna is my life line.

Thursday, October 18, 2012

Taka Update October 18, 2012


 Taka Update October 18, 2012

Fish delivery and more
I have good tuna and good toro. There is no problem for this weekend. The result of new fishes were really good.
Kawahagi was sold in 2 days. Fresh salmon roe was also sold out in 6 days, Anyway, all fishes were good. And I will get everything one more time.
Uni is really good, meat is big and taste is sweet. I think everything is all right but business is not busy this week so far.
New Taka is coming. I finally decide to paint the wall. I started it last weekend. It finished 70%. I work every night after closing. It will be finished this weekend.
Am I tired? Of course but I like fresh paint.


SUSHI DAY is coming very soon!
Our traditional event is coming on November 1st, National SUSHI DAY.
Please come to eat and get 30% discount coupons. You can use it your next visit.
I know American people like Sale.
 

Weight Control and Golf
We had a small tournament and I shot 41-44-85. This score was not bad.
I drink green tea more and more. Caffeine ? I have no problem. I can sleep any time.

 
Eating tomatoes is shown to slash stroke risk in half
Stroke continues to rank as the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S., permanently disabling and needlessly taking the lives of hundreds of thousands of adults every year. Recent studies have demonstrated that the risk of stroke can be lowered by following simple lifestyle changes including regular physical activity, limiting or eliminating trans and hydrogenated fats and sugars from the diet and consuming a variety of antioxidants from natural foods or supplemental sources.

A research team from the University of Eastern Finland, reporting in the journal, Neurology has determined that eating tomatoes and tomato-based foods is associated with a lower risk of stroke, due in large part to high concentrations of the potent antioxidant, lycopene. Lycopene is a well studied compound that gives tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables their deep red color. In prior studies, lycopene has been associated with a significant risk reduction in the development and progression of prostate cancer.



Pumpkins lower blood glucose levels, shrink enlarged prostates and prevent male hair loss
Pumpkins are a form of Native American squash and are welcome both as a decorative and edible item in autumn season festivities. While most people associate pumpkins with Halloween, fall festivals, and American Thanksgiving desserts, both pumpkins and pumpkin seed oil pack a serious health- boosting punch.
Pumpkins and pumpkin seed oil have alkaloids, flavonoids, and three different essential fatty acids. Not only is pumpkin full of antioxidants, the autumn squash has anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-diabetic properties, as well.
Pumpkins show promise for diabetes
The Daily Telegraph, a London news source, quoted research performed by East China Normal University in 2007, which found that pumpkin successfully promoted the regeneration of damaged pancreas cells in diabetic rats. This led to a boost in insulin levels in the rats' blood. Scientists conducting the study believe that pumpkin extract may be beneficial to either pre-diabetic or fully diabetic humans.
In 2009, a Japanese team of scientists compared pumpkin paste to a control group of laboratory rats with Type 2 diabetes in an oral glucose tolerance test. Pumpkin paste was considered to be effective in improving glucose tolerance and insulin resistance.


Taka sushiandpassion www.sushiandpassion.blogspot.com

375 Pharr Rd. Atlanta GA 30305 Reservation 404-869-2802

 

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

A story of this week tuna.

1, I had a good news from our supplier on the phone. So, I ordered 40 lbs. And that was stomach side.
But I saw a big hole on surface,
 

Then, I cut tuna. OMG, there were so many holes. And meat was melted. I talked with supplier. " I cannot make sushi with this tuna, I will return."
And I made sure Toro part was really good. So, I decide to return tuna part and left toro part.

I received new tuna next day. It was beautiful tuna but there was almost no toro.
But I did not worry about toro. I have a lot of toro to sell this weekend.

 

Tuesday, October 16, 2012

Sushi is dangerous food, isn't it!

I saw this article at AJC.  We really need to be careful. Raw food is always dangerous.

Restaurant inspections

A Japanese restaurant in Suwanee recently received a routine inspection score of 39/U because the person in charge wasn’t maintaining food safety.
The Gwinnett County health inspector said the certified food safety manager wasn’t ensuring food was kept at the right temperatures, or utensils were cleaned properly and food stored correctly.
In addition, the manager could not identify the five illnesses that should be reported to the health department if an employee brings them to work.
Among other noted violations, an employee reached a bare hand into a vinegar mixture for sushi rice. Another employee washed a container and knife without using soap or sanitizer.
Some frozen salmon had not been kept at temperatures low enough to kill parasites. The inspector told them not to serve it raw or undercooked. The restaurant’s menus did not include a consumer advisory disclosing all raw or undercooked items.
Temperatures in the sushi cooler were not maintained at 41 degrees or below. And temperatures in another cooler were also too high, with some sushi being held there recorded at 63 degrees. Food was also stored improperly, with raw chicken and raw fish placed above vegetables.
A bowl of rice in water was left under a work table. And paper towels, which cannot come in contact with food, was being used to wrap fish and several other food items, according to the report.
When contacted, Wasabi management had no comment. The restaurant’s previous inspection scores are B’s, and the facility will be re-inspected in the next two weeks.
Here are other recent inspection scores from area restaurants.

30% is finished



I just finished 30% of renovation.
coming more in a week.
Am I tired? Physically tired but mentally good and is break even.

Monday, October 15, 2012

Say good-vye to Old Paint


I finally decided to change the color of wall.
It started on Saturday. I think it takes a week. It's all my job.
Painting is good for me, meditation, achievement but makes me tired physically.

Saturday, October 13, 2012

This is the best! Kawahagi

This is Kawahagi, file fish. I sold Umazura Hagi last year. So someone remembers this type of fish.
I say stripper, not dancer.
This fish has hard skin like shark but can remove like this picture. So, I say stripper.
Anyway, you have to eat this fish with liver.
It is not like Ankimo, Monk fish liver. It is very good. And it was sold out already.

It will come back next Thursday.

Sujiko, Fresh Salmon Roe

This is our first time to serve Sujiko, fresh salmon roe.
It is same as Ikura, Salmon roe.
 
So, what is the difference?
Sujiko is just like th epicture, just come out from stomach. It get together.
I have to remove skin and take each by each.
Then, it become Ikura.

And we normally serve frozen Ikura all season. And this Ikura is salty because of salted.
I always wash and soak in dashi soy sauce but it is still salty.
Fresh Ikura is available only 1 month.
Eating season is good.

Wednesday, October 10, 2012

This is tuna of this week.

I am not much happy with this tuna.
I was expecting but it was OK tuna, same as last week.
 
 
 
It sounds like shortage of tuna around world now. Over catching, over eating and season issue? I am not sure but I feel X day is coming very soon.
What is X day? " I am very sorry but we don't have tuna today."
I am really thinking a new business to make money. Sushi business? There is no future. Pollution of ocean, sea temperature is getting high and over catching ruin sushi business.
I might be wrong but it's coming.
Maybe we can eat farm raised fish near future. I think 30% of our fish are farm raised. And this number is going up, never going down.
I don't want to have a deal with farm raised fish.
Wild caught is better than farm raised. 
 
 

Tuesday, October 9, 2012

Taka Update October 09, 2012


Taka Update October 09, 2012

Fish delivery and more

It’s not easy this week because of Columbus Day and Japanese Holiday. We get Japanese fish on Thursday. We don’t get anything today and tomorrow. I canceled some fishes like Magochi and Hata. Then I replaced Tachi-Uo (belt Fish),  Sawara(Spanish mackerel) and Kawahagi(Thread sail filefish). I also can get fresh Salmon roe from Japan. This is the limited offer.
New tuna is coming tomorrow. Our supplier said this tuna had small toro. But we never know until cut.
Tachi Uo

Kawahagi

Sawara

 
Weight Control and Golf
My golf score is coming back. I shot 41-43-84 last Sunday. I felt really good. Now I know how to hit irons. Weight is also getting better. My weight is 170.00 this morning. I started to drink 2 cups of green tea. It might help but I am not sure.


Exercise, Meditation Can Beat Back Cold, Flu, Study Finds
New research suggests that regular exercise or meditation may be among the best ways to reduce acute respiratory infections.
A small study of 149 active and sedentary adults aged 50 years and older compared the preventive effects of moderate exercise and mindful meditation on the severity of respiratory infections, such as cold and flu, during a full winter season in Wisconsin.
The researchers found that those participants who started a daily exercise routine had fewer bouts of respiratory infections and missed fewer days of work. The investigators also found that those doing mindfulness meditation, which focuses on paying attention to your body and emotions, were more protected against illness.
The study was published in the July/August issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.
"The results are remarkable; we saw a 40 to 50 percent reduction in respiratory infections," said Dr. Bruce Barrett, an associate professor of family medicine at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the lead author of the study.
"When we give flu vaccines, which is one of the most well-proven and beneficial interventions that we have, it only protects at a level of 50 to 60 percent and only for a few strains of [flu] virus," Barrett added. However, he noted, it could be more difficult for some people to get regular exercise or practice meditation than to get a single flu shot.
It was not clear how physical and mental workouts could help ward off sickness. While the study uncovered an association between the mind and body activities and less illness, it did not prove a cause-and-effect relationship.
"My thinking is that mindfulness meditation would reduce perceived stress and that exercise would work through more physiological pathways [to improve] the immune system," Barrett said.
The flu virus is associated with about 36,000 deaths and half a million hospitalizations in the United States every year, the study authors noted. And illnesses caused by other viruses, such as the one responsible for the common cold, are to blame for 40 million days of missed work and school every year.
The study involved mostly white women who were not already meditating or doing moderate exercise more than once a week. They were randomly broken into three groups: one-third did not change their habits; one-third started an eight-week program of moderate exercise, such as running on a treadmill and biking, for 45 minutes a day with weekly training sessions; the rest spent the same amount of time in mindfulness meditation, which included yoga, stretching, walking and other activities with an instructor and on their own.
The researchers followed the participants for one cold and flu season and asked them to call at the first sign of an illness and keep a diary of their symptoms.
During the season, the results showed, those who meditated had 27 episodes of acute respiratory illness and a combined total of 257 days of illness; those who exercised had 241 sick days and 26 episodes. That compared to 40 episodes and 453 sick days for those who did not change their habits.
The meditation group lost 16 days of work to illness, the exercise group lost 32, and the group that did not change their habits missed 67 days. But the difference was only large enough to be considered meaningful for the relationship between meditation and missed work, according to statistical requirements that the authors set before the study started.
Nonetheless, the numbers all suggested that exercise and meditation reduce respiratory illness, Barrett said. "This trial convinced me that they worked," he added.
The study also suggested that, although the benefits of meditation and exercise were similar, when individuals in the meditation group did fall ill, they seemed to suffer less and feel sick for less amount of time.
"This study is a really useful addition to the literature," said James Carmody, who has studied meditation and chronic illness at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester.
Research has found that mindfulness training reliably affects the way people perceive their symptoms of illness and reduces stress, Carmody said, although there is less evidence that their bodies actually respond differently to infections.
"If I can redirect my attention and not have it so compelled by the runny nose or the sore throat, I'm going to be less bothered by colds," Carmody added.
David Nieman, a professor of exercise science at Appalachian State University, thinks that both exercise and meditation might make people less susceptible to illness by reducing their stress levels.
But the benefits of exercise are fleeting, he added. His own research found that people who exercised five days a week had the largest reduction in cold symptoms, while those that exercised only a few days a week had intermediary benefits.

 Taka sushiandpassion www.sushiandpassion.blogspot.com
375 Pharr Rd. Atlanta GA 30305 Reservation 404-869-2802

 

Food safety in China and more


Did you know more than 1000 people got food poison in Germany? It was from frozen strawberry from China.
You can see many YouTube videos.
They made Gyoza dumpling from papers before.
They made ice from river water.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKe70AAU_lc&feature=related
Chinese imports and food safety  PBS

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q5l65wYKXsY&feature=related
China is 100 years behind U.S. in product and food safety. CNN

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=id-BoqILXh4&feature=relmfu
Pollution in China  CBS

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=njDf17CEaNI&feature=related
Food Safety in Beijing

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Adq-1C9Cdlw&feature=related
Pollution in China CNN part 1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yMLBUHnJex8&feature=relmfu
Pollution in China CNN part 2

I have more but these are enough, maybe.

Friday, October 5, 2012

Did you know that?

I found yesterday. I don't buy Swiffers any more.
Costco Surface wipes is much much cheaper.

October Fest? new beer

This is our new beer. It is Echigo beer. This beer is made from Koshihikari rice. I tasted and very clean flavor, light but tasty.
This is 17 oz, 500ml only. Yes, it's American size beer.

2 Heads, W happiness

We eat fish head. There are not much meats in but some parts are really good.
The left is Kinme-Dai, Splendid Alfonsino, and the right is Madai, Sea Bream.
Head is called Okashira, eating head is good luck or happiness.

Tuna Comparison Bad, OK and Good

They are all big eye tuna and come from Atlantic ocean. But they are all different. Wild caught tuna is not easy. It's gamble. I hit sometimes but lose sometimes.


This is bad one. It came on Monday. I knew it there was no fat. It is just red meat tuna.

This one came on Wednesday. Our supplier told me there was toro inside. You can see toro but almost no fat inside. It is just color, nice make up.
 
This one came last week. I said good. Yes, my customers were very happy with this tuna and toro.

Most of tuna come from Bahama, Ecuador, Gulf of Mexico and Trinidad Tobago.
I have no idea for next week tuna.
I want to win,

Wednesday, October 3, 2012

Taka Update October 04, 2012


 Taka Update October 04, 2012

Fish delivery and more
We had great tuna last week. I was looking for it again but was not easy. I received a tuna with small toro yesterday. It was OK and I made some Negitoro Don.
 I cut Hata, Japanese Grouper. It was chewy and looked something new.


Weight Control and Golf
My weight is same as last week. It is 171.00 lbs. No gain and no lose.Golf? I played terrible one last week. I shot 50- 45-95 at St. Marlo. I have not played 3 weeks and almost forgot how to swing. Now, I come back to weekly play and the score will be better.


New research published in Pediatrics suggests that children living with a dog are significantly healthier than those living without it. The researchers followed up 397 Finnish children, asking their parents to fill in weekly questionnaires about their health until they were 1 year old. Scientists believe that this is so because dog contact helps the babies build up their immune system.
The results showed that children with a dog at home were healthy for about 73% of the time, while the percentage on children without a dog was of 65%. According to the study, the former ‘had fewer respiratory tract symptoms or infections’, as well as ‘less frequent otitis and tended to need fewer courses of antibiotics’ than those without dog contacts. Moreover, when dogs spent most of their time outside the home, the babies were healthier.
The study emphasizes the benefits of exposure to animals, at least when it comes to the so-called ‘man’s best friend’. The researchers also analyzed cat contacts, but it seems that the influence of cats on the baby’s health was weaker. 

Taka sushiandpassion www.sushiandpassion.blogspot.com

375 Pharr Rd. Atlanta GA 30305 Reservation 404-869-2802

Monday, October 1, 2012

Japan Currents

This is from Conslate general of Japan.

The Heart of Echizen: Wood-fired work by contemporary masters (Demorest, GA)
 
-Through October 20
The Mason-Scharfenstein Museum of Art at Piedmont College is proud to present The Heart of Echizen : Wood-fired work by Contemporary Echizen Masters. This show was curated by ceramics professor and Piedmont art department chair Chris Kelly. The museum is free of charge and is open Monday -Saturday 9:00 am- 5:00pm.  
 
 
 
 
 
Midori Plays Beethoven (Atlanta, GA)
 
-October 4, 6, 7
Robert Spano opens his 12th - and the Orchestra's 68th - season with twin peaks of the repertoire: Beethoven's grand and poetic Violin Concerto, with the luminous Midori; and Tchaikovsky's fateful 4th. At the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra.
 
 
Ferst Center for the Arts Highlights Japan (Atlanta, GA)
 -Keiko Matsui (October 5)
An icon of contemporary jazz, pianist Keiko Matsui creates music both powerful and introspective, blending Western and Eastern musical influences. Her exquisite style of Japanese jazz spans three decades of international acclaim. Elegant piano melodies, a free spirit and creative genius mark her return to the Ferst stage.
 
 
 
TAIKOPROJECT (October 21)
Exuberant in performance, the premiere taiko drummers of TAIKOPROJECT blend traditional forms with an innovative and fresh aesthetic approach. TAIKOPROJECT, based in Los Angeles, was the first and only American group to win the prestigious Tokyo International Taiko Contest in Japan. Atlanta Premiere.
 
 
Please ask belows.
Phone: 404-240-4300
Fax: 404-240-4311
Web: http://www.atlanta.us.emb-japan.go.jp/

Shrinking of fishes exacerbates impacts of global ocean changes on marine ecosystems

Changes in temperature, oxygen content and other ocean biogeochemical properties directly affect the ecophysiology of marine water-breathing organisms1, 2, 3. Previous studies suggest that the most prominent biological responses are changes in distribution4, 5, 6, phenology7, 8 and productivity9. Both theory and empirical observations also support the hypothesis that warming and reduced oxygen will reduce body size of marine fishes10, 11, 12. However, the extent to which such changes would exacerbate the impacts of climate and ocean changes on global marine ecosystems remains unexplored. Here, we employ a model to examine the integrated biological responses of over 600 species of marine fishes due to changes in distribution, abundance and body size. The model has an explicit representation of ecophysiology, dispersal, distribution, and population dynamics3. We show that assemblage-averaged maximum body weight is expected to shrink by 14–24% globally from 2000 to 2050 under a high-emission scenario. About half of this shrinkage is due to change in distribution and abundance, the remainder to changes in physiology. The tropical and intermediate latitudinal areas will be heavily impacted, with an average reduction of more than 20%. Our results provide a new dimension to understanding the integrated impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems.

Figures at a glance

left
  1. Figure 1: Projected changes in ocean conditions and the expected biological responses of fish communities in terms of distribution and body size.
    Projected changes in ocean conditions and the expected biological responses of fish communities in terms of distribution and body size.
    a, Projected changes in sea bottom temperature. b, Dissolved oxygen concentration. Anomalies in temperature and oxygen are average projections from GFDL ESM2.1 and IPSL-CM4-LOOP relative to the average 1971–2000 values under the SRES a2 scenario. c, Schematic illustrating the expected changes in body size at individual and assemblage levels in a specific region (area enclosed by dashed red line). It is hypothesized that under warming and reduced oxygen levels, the fish at a particular location will have smaller body weight. Together with the invasion/increased abundance of smaller-bodied species and local extinction/decreased abundance of larger-bodied species, mean maximum body weight is expected to lower at the assemblage level.
  2. Figure 2: Predicted mean assemblage maximum body weight (g) and its changes from 2000 to 2050 (20-year average) under the SRES A2 scenario.
    Predicted mean assemblage maximum body weight (g) and its changes from 2000 to 2050 (20-year average) under the SRES A2 scenario.
    ac, The mean and variation of projections from simulations driven by GFDL ESM2.1 and IPSL-CM4-LOOP are presented. White areas on the maps represent no data. a, Maximum body weight in 1991–2010 is predicted from the Dynamic Bioclimate Envelope Model (left, see Methods). Latitudinal average of mean assemblage maximum body weight in the global ocean in 1991–2010 and 2041–2060 (right). b, The projected percentage changes in mean assemblage maximum body weight between 2000 and 2050 (left) and latitudinal change in average mean assemblage maximum body weight in the global ocean between 2000 and 2050 (right). c, Level of variation in predictions driven by the two earth system models. Areas of agreement between models (coefficient of variation <20 class="mb" span="span">%
) are indicated in red and orange. The data are filtered with a 5-degree running mean across the latitudinal averages.
  • Figure 3: Change in individual-level maximum body size of fishes in different ocean basins from 2000 (averages of 1991–2010) to 2050 (averages of 2041–2060).
    Change in individual-level maximum body size of fishes in different ocean basins from 2000 (averages of 1991-2010) to 2050 (averages of 2041-2060).
    The thick black lines represent median values, the upper and lower boundaries of the box represents 75 and 25 percentiles and the vertical dotted lines represent upper and lower limits.
  • Figure 4: Comparison of relationship between maximum body size ( ) and habitat temperature predicted from the growth model presented in this study (filled dots, solid line) and observations (open dots, broken line).
    Comparison of relationship between maximum body size () and habitat temperature predicted from the growth model presented in this study (filled dots, solid line) and observations (open dots, broken line).
    a, Maximum body weight for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the North Atlantic based on growth parameters estimated from body size-at-age data from populations in different locations in ref. 28, and b, maximum body weight for North Sea haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) (based on growth parameters in ref. 11.) The slopes of the best fit lines from linear regression for both datasets are significant (p<0 .05=".05" are="are" body="body" both="both" cases="cases" changes.="changes." changes="changes" conservative="conservative" in="in" log="log" maximum="maximum" more="more" observed="observed" over="over" p="p" predicted="predicted" temperature="temperature" than="than" the="the" weight="weight">
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    Main

    Global climate and ocean changes resulting from anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions are currently affecting and expected to continue to affect marine organisms1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. These impacts are fundamentally linked to the close relationship between ocean conditions and the ecophysiology of marine organisms, notably water-breathing ectotherms1, 2, 13. However, previous studies focus largely on the implication of thermal tolerance and limitations of other environmental factors for the distribution range of these organisms4, 5, 6. Few studies have assessed the integrated responses of changes in ecophysiology, distribution and their effects on key characteristics of marine biota such as body size.
    The size of aquatic water-breathers is strongly affected by temperature, oxygen level and other factors such as resource availability2, 14. Specifically, the maximum body weight ( ) of marine fishes and invertebrates is fundamentally limited by the balance between energy demand and supply, where is reached when energy demand=energy supply (thus net growth=0). This can be expressed by the function that is commonly used to describe growth of fishes 15

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    http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nclimate1691.html